More than 40% of the paramo in the northwesterly department of Piura, Peru is under mining concessions. These high altitude wetlands are vital sources of water for the arid lowlands where important export agriculture operations are situated. According to this article, to date only 0.69% of this area is being mined and 0.63% explored. But serious conflicts have already arisen, most notoriously regarding the Majaz copper-molybdenum project owned by the Chinese Zijin Consortium and the UK’s Monterrico Metals.